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Dissemination of clonal groups of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae amongst Pig farms in Spain, and their relationships to isolates from other countries

Osorio, J., Carvajal, A., Naharro, G., La, T., Phillips, N.D., Rubio, P. and Hampson, D.J.ORCID: 0000-0002-7729-0427 (2012) Dissemination of clonal groups of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae amongst Pig farms in Spain, and their relationships to isolates from other countries. PLoS ONE, 7 (6). e39082.

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Background: Swine dysentery (SD) is a widespread diarrhoeal disease of pigs caused by infection of the large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Understanding the dynamics of SD, and hence being able to develop more effective measures to counter its spread, depends on the ability to characterise B. hyodysenteriae variants and trace relationships of epidemic strains. Methodology/Principal Findings: A collection of 51 Spanish and 1 Portuguese B. hyodysenteriae isolates was examined using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on the sequences of seven conserved genomic loci. The isolates were allocated to 10 sequence types (STs) in three major groups of descent. Isolates in four of the STs were widely distributed in farms around Spain. One farm was infected with isolates from more than one ST. Sequence data obtained from PubMLST for 111 other B. hyodysenteriae strains from other countries then were included in the analysis. Two of the predominant STs that were found in Spain also were present in other European countries. The 73 STs were arranged in eleven clonal complexes (Cc) containing between 2 and 26 isolates. A population snapshot based on amino acid types (AATs) placed 75% of the isolates from 32 of the 48 AATs into one major cluster. The founder type AAT9 included 22 isolates from 10 STs that were recovered in Spain, Australia, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Conclusions/Significance: This MLST scheme provided sufficient resolution power to unambiguously characterise B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and can be recommended as a routine typing tool that rapidly enables comparisons of isolates. Using this method it was shown that some of the main genetic lineages of B. hyodysenteriae in Spain also occurred in other countries, providing further evidence for international transmission. Finally, analysis of AATs appeared useful for deducing putative ancestral relationships between strains.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Copyright: © 2012 Osorio et al.
Notes: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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