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Theory and measurement of Type 1 and Type 2 emotions

Bellman, S. (2007) Theory and measurement of Type 1 and Type 2 emotions. Australasian Marketing Journal, 15 (1). pp. 14-22.

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Rossiter and Bellman (2005) define two types of emotions, and this article describes how they should be measured. Type1 emotions (e1) are automatically elicited “basal” emotions that do not require cognitive appraisal—pleasure, arousal, and possibly dominance—which should be measured on a continuous scale. Self-reports are valid although arousal is more reliably measured by skin conductance (GSR). Type2 emotions (e2) consist of complex, differentiated emotions that do require cognitive appraisal (e.g. love, anger, contempt, empathy, nostalgia, and desire). Since cognitive labelling can show considerable variation, cross-culturally, and individually, type2 emotions should be measured as binary (present: yes, no), using self-report ratings. A new study by Rossiter and Bellman (2007) demonstrates that binary type2 emotions reflecting steps of attachment to the brand are important predictors of brand buying and brand loyalty.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Interactive Television Research Institute
Publisher: Monash University ePress
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