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Multi-omic phenotyping reveals host-microbe responses to bariatric surgery, glycaemic control and obesity

Penney, N.C., Yeung, D.K.T., Garcia-Perez, I., Posma, J.M., Kopytek, A., Garratt, B., Ashrafian, H., Frost, G., Marchesi, J.R., Purkayastha, S., Hoyles, L., Darzi, A. and Holmes, E. (2022) Multi-omic phenotyping reveals host-microbe responses to bariatric surgery, glycaemic control and obesity. Communications Medicine, 2 (1). Art. 127.

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Abstract

Background

Resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is common following bariatric surgery, particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.

Methods

To address this we compare the integrated serum, urine and faecal metabolic profiles of participants with obesity ± T2D (n = 80, T2D = 42) with participants who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy (pre and 3-months post-surgery; n = 27), taking diet into account. We co-model these data with shotgun metagenomic profiles of the gut microbiota to provide a comprehensive atlas of host-gut microbe responses to bariatric surgery, weight-loss and glycaemic control at the systems level.

Results

Here we show that bariatric surgery reverses several disrupted pathways characteristic of T2D. The differential metabolite set representative of bariatric surgery overlaps with both diabetes (19.3% commonality) and body mass index (18.6% commonality). However, the percentage overlap between diabetes and body mass index is minimal (4.0% commonality), consistent with weight-independent mechanisms of T2D resolution. The gut microbiota is more strongly correlated to body mass index than T2D, although we identify some pathways such as amino acid metabolism that correlate with changes to the gut microbiota and which influence glycaemic control.

Conclusion

We identify multi-omic signatures associated with responses to surgery, body mass index, and glycaemic control. Improved understanding of gut microbiota - host co-metabolism may lead to novel therapies for weight-loss or diabetes. However, further experiments are required to provide mechanistic insight into the role of the gut microbiota in host metabolism and establish proof of causality.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Centre for Computational and Systems Medicine
Publisher: Springer Nature
Copyright: © 2022 The Authors.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/66522
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