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IFN-γ ELISpot in severe cutaneous adverse reactions to First-line Antituberculosis drugs in an HIV endemic setting

Porter, M., Choshi, P., Pedretti, S., Chimbetete, T., Smith, R., Meintjes, G., Phillips, E., Lehloenya, R. and Peters, J. (2022) IFN-γ ELISpot in severe cutaneous adverse reactions to First-line Antituberculosis drugs in an HIV endemic setting. Journal of Investigative Dermatology . In Press.

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Severe cutaneous adverse reactions related to first-line antituberculosis drugs are associated with high mortality and long-term morbidity. Oral sequential drug challenge, as a form of drug provocation testing, helps to salvage therapy by identifying culprit drugs but is associated with risk and is costly. IFN-γ enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot), an adjunctive in vitro diagnostic tool, may help to guide risk-stratification approaches. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of IFN-γ ELISpot against full-dose sequential drug challenge, we analyzed samples collected prospectively at multiple time points in 32 patients with first-line antituberculosis drug‒associated severe cutaneous adverse reaction (81% HIV infected, 25 with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 7 with Stevens‒Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis). Sensitivity of IFN-γ ELISpot was 33% (4 of 12), 13% (1 of 8), 11% (1 of 9), and 0% (0 of 4) for rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, respectively (positivity threshold ≥50 spot forming units/million cells). Specificity was 100% for all the four drugs. Rifampicin IFN-γ ELISpot sensitivity increased to 58% (7 of 12) if a threshold of 20 spot forming units was used and to 75% (3 of 4) when restricted to samples <12 weeks after acute severe cutaneous adverse reaction event; specificity remained 100% for both. IFN-γ ELISpot offers adequate risk stratification of rifampicin severe cutaneous adverse reaction using acute samples and lowered threshold for positivity. Given the low sensitivity of IFN-γ ELISpot for other first-line antituberculosis drugs, additional optimization is needed to improve risk-stratification potential.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: Elsevier, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Investigative Dermatology.
Copyright: © 2022 The Authors.
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