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Review of generic screening level assumptions for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for estimating public health risks from Australian drinking water sources contaminated with Cryptosporidium by recreational activities

Ryan, U.ORCID: 0000-0003-2710-9324, Hill, K. and Deere, D. (2022) Review of generic screening level assumptions for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for estimating public health risks from Australian drinking water sources contaminated with Cryptosporidium by recreational activities. Water Research, 220 . Art. 118659.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118659
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Abstract

As urban communities continue to grow, demand for recreational access (including swimming) in drinking water sources have increased, yet relatively little is understood about the public health implications this poses for drinking water consumers. Preventative risk-based approaches to catchment management, informed by quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), requires accurate input data to effectively model risks. A sound understanding of the knowledge gaps is also important to comprehend levels of uncertainty and help prioritise research needs. Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis globally due to its resistance to chlorine. This review was undertaken by Water Research Australia to provide the most up-to-date information on current Cryptosporidium epidemiological data and underlying assumptions for exposure assessment, dose response and risk assessment for generic components of QMRA for Cryptosporidium and highlights priorities for common research. Key interim recommendations and guidelines for numerical values for relatively simple screening level QMRA modelling are provided to help support prospective studies of risks to drinking water consumers from Cryptosporidium due to body-contact recreation in source water. The review does not cover site-specific considerations, such as the levels of activity in the source water, the influence of dilution and inactivation in reservoirs, or water treatment. Although the focus is Australia, the recommendations and numerical values developed in this review, and the highlighted research priorities, are broadly applicable across all drinking source water sources that allow recreational activities.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Harry Butler Institute
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Copyright: © 2022 Elsevier Ltd.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/65308
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