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Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveals alginate oligosaccharides preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis

Zhao, Y., Feng, Y., Liu, M., Chen, L., Meng, Q., Tang, X., Wang, S., Liu, L., Li, L., Shen, W. and Zhang, H. (2020) Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveals alginate oligosaccharides preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Mucosal Immunology, 13 (3). pp. 437-448.

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Worldwide the incidence of cancer has been continuing increasing. Mucositis of the gastrointestinal tract is a common side effect in patients under chemotherapy. Anticancer drug busulfan, used for treating chronic myeloid leukemia especially in pediatric patients, causes mucositis of the gastrointestinal tract. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) are natural products with attractive pharmaceutical potentials. We aimed to investigate, at the single-cell level, AOS preventing small intestine mucositis induced by busulfan. We found that busulfan disturbed the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of cells in the small intestine, damaged cell membranes especially cell junctions, and disrupted microvilli; all of which were rescued by AOS. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis and functional enrichment analysis showed that AOS could recover small intestinal function. Deep analysis found that AOS improved the expression of transcriptional factors which explained AOS regulating gene expression to improve small intestine function. Further investigation in IPEC-J2 cells found that AOS acts its function through mannose receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, the improved blood metabolome confirmed small intestinal function was recovered by AOS. As a natural product with many advantages, AOS could be developed to assist in the recovery of intestinal functions in patients undergoing anticancer chemotherapy or other treatments.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Copyright: © 2020 The Authors.
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