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Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury subsequent to severe hypotension and fluid resuscitation in anaesthetized dogs

Davis, J.ORCID: 0000-0002-7078-1645, Rossi, G.ORCID: 0000-0003-4879-9504, Cianciolo, R.E., Ho, K.M., Hosgood, G.L., Miller, D.W.ORCID: 0000-0002-4634-5819 and Raisis, A.L. (2022) Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury subsequent to severe hypotension and fluid resuscitation in anaesthetized dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia . In Press.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.02.006
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Abstract

Objectives
To document changes in urinary biomarker concentration and conventional diagnostic tests of acute kidney injury (AKI) following hypotension and fluid resuscitation in anaesthetized dogs.
Study design
Experimental, repeated measures, prospective study.
Animals
A group of six male adult Greyhound dogs.
Methods
Following general anaesthesia, severe hypotension was induced by phlebotomy, maintaining mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) < 40 mmHg for 60 minutes, followed by resuscitation with intravenous gelatine solution to maintain MAP > 60 mmHg for 3 hours. Following euthanasia, renal tissue was examined by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urinary and serum concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), serum creatinine and urine output were measured at baseline and hourly until euthanasia. Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence interval and analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Dunnett’s adjustment, p < 0.05.
Results
Structural damage to proximal renal tubular cells was evident on LM and TEM. Urinary biomarker concentrations were significantly elevated from baseline, peaking 2 hours after haemorrhage at 19.8 (15.1–25.9) ng mL–1 NGAL (p = 0.002), 2.54 (1.64–3.43) mg mL–1 CysC (p = 0.009) and 2043 (790–5458) U L–1 GGT (p < 0.001). Serum creatinine remained within a breed-specific reference interval in all dogs. Urinary protein–creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly elevated in all dogs from 1 hour following haemorrhage.
Conclusions and clinical relevance
Urinary NGAL, CysC and GGT concentrations, and UPC were consistently elevated within 1 hour of severe hypotension, suggesting that proximal renal tubules are damaged in the earliest stage of ischaemia-reperfusion AKI. Measurement of urinary biomarkers may allow early diagnosis of AKI in anaesthetized dogs. Urinary GGT concentration and UPC are particularly useful as they can be measured on standard biochemistry analysers.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Veterinary Medicine
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Copyright: © 2022 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/64845
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