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Fibroblast senescence in the pathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Waters, D.W., Blokland, K.E.C., Pathinayake, P.S., Burgess, J.K., Mutsaers, S.E., Prêle, C.M., Schuliga, M., Grainge, C.L. and Knight, D.A. (2018) Fibroblast senescence in the pathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 315 (2). L162-L172.

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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause with a median survival of only three years. Little is known about the mechanisms that precede the excessive collagen deposition seen in IPF, but cellular senescence has been strongly implicated in disease pathology. Senescence is a state of irreversible cell-cycle arrest accompanied by an abnormal secretory profile and is thought to play a critical role in both development and wound repair. Normally, once a senescent cell has contributed to wound repair, it is promptly removed from the environment via infiltrating immune cells. However, if immune clearance fails, the persistence of senescent cells is thought to drive disease pathology through their altered secretory profile. One of the major cell types involved in wound healing is fibroblasts, and senescent fibroblasts have been identified in the lungs of patients with IPF and in fibroblast cultures from IPF lungs. The question of what is driving abnormally high numbers of fibroblasts into senescence remains unanswered. The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a role in a myriad of processes, including cell-cycle progression, gene transcription, as well as mitochondrial respiration, all of which are dysregulated during senescence. Activation of STAT3 has previously been shown to correlate with IPF progression and therefore is a potential molecular target to modify early-stage senescence and restore normal fibroblast function. This review summarizes what is presently known about fibroblast senescence in IPF and how STAT3 may contribute to this phenotype.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publisher: American Physiological Society
Copyright: © 2018 the American Physiological Society
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