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Improvement and re-evolution of tetraploid wheat for global environmental challenge and diversity consumption demand

Yang, F., Zhang, J.ORCID: 0000-0002-1623-4675, Liu, Q., Liu, H., Zhou, Y., Yang, W. and Ma, W.ORCID: 0000-0002-1264-866X (2022) Improvement and re-evolution of tetraploid wheat for global environmental challenge and diversity consumption demand. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23 (4). Article 2206.

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Allotetraploid durum wheat is the second most widely cultivated wheat, following hexaploid bread wheat, and is one of the major protein and calorie sources of the human diet. However, durum wheat is encountered with a severe grain yield bottleneck due to the erosion of genetic diversity stemming from long-term domestication and especially modern breeding programs. The improvement of yield and grain quality of durum wheat is crucial when confronted with the increasing global population, changing climate environments, and the non-ignorable increasing incidence of wheat-related disorders. This review summarized the domestication and evolution process and discussed the durum wheat re-evolution attempts performed by global researchers using diploid einkorn, tetraploid emmer wheat, hexaploid wheat (particularly the D-subgenome), etc. In addition, the re-evolution of durum wheat would be promoted by the genetic enrichment process, which could diversify allelic combinations through enhancing chromosome recombination (pentaploid hybridization or pairing of homologous chromosomes gene Ph mutant line induced homoeologous recombination) and environmental adaptability via alien introgressive genes (wide cross or distant hybridization followed by embryo rescue), and modifying target genes or traits by molecular approaches, such as CRISPR/Cas9 or RNA interference (RNAi). A brief discussion of the future perspectives for exploring germplasm for the modern improvement and re-evolution of durum wheat is included.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education
Australia-China Joint Centre for Wheat Improvement (ACCWI)
Publisher: MDPI
Copyright: © 2022 by the authors
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