Murdoch University Research Repository

Welcome to the Murdoch University Research Repository

The Murdoch University Research Repository is an open access digital collection of research
created by Murdoch University staff, researchers and postgraduate students.

Learn more

A review of the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

Hijjawi, N., Zahedi, A.ORCID: 0000-0002-0165-3797, Al-Falah, M. and Ryan, U.ORCID: 0000-0003-2710-9324 (2022) A review of the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 98 . Art. 105212.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Download (1MB) | Preview
Free to read: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105212
*No subscription required

Abstract

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important protozoan parasites which are associated with diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Relatively little is known about the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the Middle East Countries and North Africa (MENA region). Therefore, this review aimed to inspect published genotyping and subtyping studies on Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the MENA region. These studies indicate that both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium occurs with the predominance of zoonotic transmission in most countries. Seven Cryptosporidium species were identified in humans (C. parvum, C. hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. felis, Cryptosporidium muris, C. canis and C. bovis), with C. parvum by far being the most prevalent species (reported in 95.4% of the retrieved studies). Among C. parvum gp60 subtype families, IIa and IId predominated, suggesting potential zoonotic transmission. However, in four MENA countries (Lebanon, Israel, Egypt and Tunisia), C. hominis was the predominant species with five subtype families reported including Ia, Ib, Id, If and Ie, all of which are usually anthroponotically transmitted between humans. In animals, the majority of studies were conducted mainly on livestock and poultry, 15 species were identified (C. parvum, C. hominis, C. muris, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. erinacei, C. ryanae, C. felis, C. suis, Cryptosporidium galli, C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum) with C. parvum (IIa and IId subtypes) the dominant species in livestock and C. meleagridis and C. baileyi the dominant species in poultry. With G. duodenalis, five assemblages (A, B, C, E and F) were identified in humans and six (A, B, C, E, D and F) in animals in MENA countries with assemblages A and B commonly reported in humans, and assemblages A and E dominant in livestock. This review also identified a major knowledge gap in the lack of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis typing studies in water and food sources in the MENA region. Of the few studies conducted on water sources (including drinking and tap water), ten Cryptosporidium species and four genotypes were identified, highlighting the potential role of water as the major route of Cryptosporidium spp. transmission in the region. In addition, three G. duodenalis assemblages (A, B and E) were detected in different water sources with AI, AII and BIV being the main sub-assemblages reported. More research is required in order to better understand the molecular diversity and transmission dynamics of Cryptsporidum spp. and Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals, water and food sources in MENA region.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Centre for Biosecurity and One Health
Harry Butler Institute
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Copyright: © 2022 The Authors.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/63791
Item Control Page Item Control Page

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year