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A framework for translating Sustainable Development Goals into national energy planning in developing countries: The case of Indonesia

Santika, I Wayan Gede (2021) A framework for translating Sustainable Development Goals into national energy planning in developing countries: The case of Indonesia. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.

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The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are the 2030 global agenda to end poverty and hunger, enjoy peace and prosperity, and protect the Earth. The SDGs are set in a global context but only executable locally and nationally. Consequently, mainstreaming them into national development planning is essential, and integrating the SDGs into national planning constitutes revisiting the national energy plan. Any action aimed at achieving SDG targets may have direct and indirect effects on energy. Unfortunately, the national energy supply and demand projection is usually developed based on demographic and economic assumptions without considering SDG mainstreaming impacts. Therefore, a framework was developed for translating the SDGs into national energy planning in developing countries. The research used Indonesia’s data to test the framework. The study mapped the links between the SDG targets and energy demand and provided methods to translate those targets to energy demand. It also evaluated the impacts of energy policy on achieving the SDG on energy. The implications of SDG implementations on the national energy supply and demand of Indonesia were also assessed. Finally, the study offers scenarios for Indonesia to achieve its Paris Agreement goal beyond nationally determined contribution (NDC) commitments.

This study identifies 25 targets associated with energy demand and proposes a solution for estimating the energy demand associated with the targets. The SDGs implementation in the context of Indonesia will anticipate a 5% increase in energy demand above the reference scenario. Indonesia is on track to meet universal access to electricity by 2025 under the current policy support. However, universal access to clean fuels and technology and renewable energy targets will be missed. In contrast, the 2.6% annual increase in energy efficiency improvement has been achieved by Indonesia since 2015. Finally, the NDCs of Indonesia will be easily reached by 2030. A more ambitious carbon emissions reduction compatible with the Paris Agreement goal is achievable by remarkably increasing the adoption of renewable energy technology and applying strong energy efficiency measures.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Engineering and Energy
United Nations SDGs: Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals
Supervisor(s): Urmee, Tania, Shafiullah, GM, Zaman, Anis and Bahri, Parisa
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