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Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia – a 50 year perspective (1971–2021)

Ryan, U.M.ORCID: 0000-0003-2710-9324, Feng, Y., Fayer, R. and Xiao, L. (2021) Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia – a 50 year perspective (1971–2021). International Journal for Parasitology, 51 (13-14). pp. 1099-1119.

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The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are significant causes of diarrhoea worldwide and are responsible for numerous waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diseases. Over the last 50 years, the development of improved detection and typing tools has facilitated the expanding range of named species. Currently at least 44 Cryptosporidium spp. and >120 genotypes, and nine Giardia spp., are recognised. Many of these Cryptosporidium genotypes will likely be described as species in the future. The phylogenetic placement of Cryptosporidium at the genus level is still unclear and further research is required to better understand its evolutionary origins. Zoonotic transmission has long been known to play an important role in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and the development and application of next generation sequencing tools is providing evidence for this. Comparative whole genome sequencing is also providing key information on the genetic mechanisms for host specificity and human infectivity, and will enable One Health management of these zoonotic parasites in the future.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Harry Butler Institute
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Copyright: © 2021 Australian Society for Parasitology.
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