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Duration of skin desensitisation following palmar digital nerve blocks with lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine and prilocaine

Harcourt, M.M., Smith, R.L. and Hosgood, G. (2021) Duration of skin desensitisation following palmar digital nerve blocks with lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine and prilocaine. Australian Veterinary Journal . Early View.

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Objective comparative evidence of the time to onset and duration of effect provided by local anaesthetic (LA) agents for perineural blocks in the horse is lacking. Clear knowledge of these properties is required to guide clinically appropriate agent selection and aid interpretation of response to diagnostic blocks for lameness examinations. An interventional study, with complete, randomised crossover design was used to compare time to onset and duration of skin desensitisation provided by four LA agents applied to palmar digital nerve blocks in 12 horses. Effect at each time point was determined using a pressure gauge to measure the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) over the heel bulbs. Complete desensitisation was defined when MNT was greater than four times the pre-block baseline. Onset and duration of complete desensitisation were recorded and compared across agents using a mixed linear model. When significant (P ≤ 0.05), post-hoc paired comparisons between agents were performed against a Tukey's corrected P ≤ 0.05. Onset of complete skin desensitisation for each agent was <5 min. Duration for lidocaine (mean 25 min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9–42) was shorter than bupivacaine (53 min; 95% CI 39–65), which was shorter than both prilocaine (102 min; 95% CI 81–123) and mepivacaine (107 min; 95% CI 92–121), which were not different. Although onset of complete skin desensitisation was not different for the LA agents tested, duration varied from 25 min to nearly 2 h. Prilocaine and mepivacaine provided the most prolonged duration of effect, both exceeding bupivacaine.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Veterinary Medicine
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Copyright: © 2021 Australian Veterinary Association.
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