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A common genetic variant of a mitochondrial RNA processing enzyme predisposes to insulin resistance

Rossetti, G., Ermer, J.A., Stentenbach, M., Siira, S.J., Richman, T.R., Milenkovic, D., Perks, K.L., Hughes, L.A., Jamieson, E., Xiafukaiti, G., Ward, N.C., Takahashi, S., Gray, N., Viola, H.M., Hool, L.C., Rackham, O. and Filipovska, A. (2021) A common genetic variant of a mitochondrial RNA processing enzyme predisposes to insulin resistance. Science Advances, 7 (39). Art. eabi7514.

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Mitochondrial energy metabolism plays an important role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Recently, a missense N437S variant was identified in the MRPP3 gene, which encodes a mitochondrial RNA processing enzyme within the RNase P complex, with predicted impact on metabolism. We used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to introduce this variant into the mouse Mrpp3 gene and show that the variant causes insulin resistance on a high-fat diet. The variant did not influence mitochondrial gene expression markedly, but instead, it reduced mitochondrial calcium that lowered insulin release from the pancreatic islet β cells of the Mrpp3 variant mice. Reduced insulin secretion resulted in lower insulin levels that contributed to imbalanced metabolism and liver steatosis in the Mrpp3 variant mice on a high-fat diet. Our findings reveal that the MRPP3 variant may be a predisposing factor to insulin resistance and metabolic disease in the human population.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Australian National Phenome Center
Centre for Computational and Systems Medicine
Health Futures Institute
Publisher: AAAS
Copyright: © 2021 The Authors.
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