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Energy management systems for grid-connected houses with solar PV and battery by considering flat and time-of-use electricity rates

Pan, X., Khezri, R., Mahmoudi, A., Yazdani, A. and Shafiullah, GM.ORCID: 0000-0002-2211-184X (2021) Energy management systems for grid-connected houses with solar PV and battery by considering flat and time-of-use electricity rates. Energies, 14 (16). Article 5028.

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Abstract

This paper develops new practical rule-based energy management systems (EMSs) for typical grid-connected houses with solar photovoltaic (PV) and battery by considering different rates for purchasing and selling electricity. The EMSs are developed to supply the household’s loads and reduce operating costs of the system based on different options of flat and time-of-use (ToU) rates for buying and selling electricity prices. Four different options are evaluated and compared in this study: (1) Flat-Flat, (2) ToU-Flat, (3) Flat-ToU, and (4) ToU-ToU. The operation cost is calculated based on the electricity exchange with the main grid, the equivalent cost of PV generation, as well as the degradation cost of battery storage. The operation of the grid-connected house with rooftop solar PV and battery is evaluated for a sunny week in summer and a cloudy week in winter to investigate the proper performance for high and low generations of PV. While the developed rule-based EMS are generic and can be applied for any case studies, a grid-connected house in Australia is examined. For this purpose, real data of solar radiation, air temperature, electricity consumption, and electricity rates are used. It is found that the ToU-Flat option has the lowest operating cost for the customers.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Engineering and Energy
Centre for Water, Energy and Waste
Harry Butler Institute
Publisher: MDPI
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors
United Nations SDGs: Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/61942
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