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Study on protein profiles of soybean and lupin milk and their vegan cheese productions

Al-Saedi, Nadia Hanoon Salman (2021) Study on protein profiles of soybean and lupin milk and their vegan cheese productions. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.

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The prospects of lupin grain as an animal alternative and functional food have increased over recent decades due to its high protein content and low level of anti-nutritional fractions that can help to improve the nutritional value and human health benefits. Australian Sweet Lupins are used in making foods such as tempe, miso and traditional soy sauces. Soybeans are used in food products such as meals, drinks, and sports beverages. They aretherefore, very beneficial to demonstrate the possibility of lupin milk and soybean proteins to produce cheese without the saturated fat found in dairy milk.

This thesis focuses on proteomic analysis of soybean and lupin seed milk in cheese products made with different coagulation methods, using a range of proteome technologies including isoelectric focusing (IEF), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and liquid chromatograph mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Two narrow-leaf lupin cultivars PBA Jurien and Mandelup cultivar and one cultivar (Bunya) of soybean (Glycine max) were studied for proteomic analysis to identify their diverse proteins. Whole and split-seed milk from soybean were extracted via two filtration methods, cheesecloth and centrifugation. A total of 97 protein spots were identified, 49 of which displayed different abundances. Of the two separation techniques, centrifuge separation gave higher protein and more intense protein spots than cheesecloth separation. In addition, split-seed soybean milk contained fewer allergenic proteins, then did whole-seed milk. Also, the results indicate that cheese can be obtained from soybean milk filtered by either cheesecloth or centrifugation.

This thesis also investigates the influence of filtration techniques on lupin seed milk. A total of 230 proteins were identified, of which 60 protein spots showed differential abundance, different proteins either present or absent, or differential protein quantity between the samples of lupin milk. For both cultivars, cheesecloth separation gave much better protein extraction than centrifugation. The protein reference maps constructed for whole and split-seed soybean and lupin milk was further used in the study of soybean and lupin cheesemaking from their seed milk. This study was conducted to identify the optimal method of cheese production, based on temperature, coagulation method, sensory evaluation, yield, and also to identify the proteins associated with cheese production. Lupin cheeses were obtained from split-seed lupin milk using cheesecloth filtration but could not be obtained from centrifuge-separated lupin milk. To understand protein yield and composition, lupin milk proteins were separated from the first and second cheesecloth filtrations and analysed using 2D-PAGE followed by LC-MS. The results indicated that the first filtration method produced better extraction and higher yield of lupin proteins than the second filtration method. Lupin cheese products by vinegar 7.80% (expressed as acetic acid) coagulation were characterized by a relatively higher yield, higher protein content and preference by sensory panellists. Lupin cheese finding that has not been previously explored in the literature. These outcomes have potential for the dairy industry and will assist in understanding the health benefits of lupin cheeses.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Agricultural Sciences
Supervisor(s): Agarwal, Manjree, Ren, Yonglin, Ma, Wujun and Islam, Shahidul
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