Murdoch University Research Repository

Welcome to the Murdoch University Research Repository

The Murdoch University Research Repository is an open access digital collection of research
created by Murdoch University staff, researchers and postgraduate students.

Learn more

Robotic Antimicrobial Susceptibility Platform (RASP): A next-generation approach to One Health surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

Truswell, A., Abraham, R., O’Dea, M.ORCID: 0000-0002-2757-7585, Lee, Z.Z., Lee, T., Laird, T., Blinco, J., Kaplan, S., Turnidge, J., Trott, D.J., Jordan, D. and Abraham, S. (2021) Robotic Antimicrobial Susceptibility Platform (RASP): A next-generation approach to One Health surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 76 (7). pp. 1800-1807.

PDF - Published Version
Download (437kB) | Preview
Free to read:
*No subscription required



Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is critical to reducing its wide-reaching impact. Its reliance on sample size invites solutions to longstanding constraints regarding scalability. A robotic platform (RASP) was developed for high-throughput AMR surveillance in accordance with internationally recognized standards (CLSI and ISO 20776-1:2019) and validated through a series of experiments.


Experiment A compared RASP’s ability to achieve consistent MICs with that of a human technician across eight replicates for four Escherichia coli isolates. Experiment B assessed RASP’s agreement with human-performed MICs across 91 E. coli isolates with a diverse range of AMR profiles. Additionally, to demonstrate its real-world applicability, the RASP workflow was then applied to five faecal samples where a minimum of 47 E. coli per animal (239 total) were evaluated using an AMR indexing framework.


For each drug–rater–isolate combination in Experiment A, there was a clear consensus of the MIC and deviation from the consensus remained within one doubling dilution (the exception being gentamicin at two dilutions). Experiment B revealed a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.9670 (95% CI: 0.9670–0.9670) between the robot- and human-performed MICs. RASP’s application to the five faecal samples highlighted the intra-animal diversity of gut commensal E. coli, identifying between five and nine unique isolate AMR phenotypes per sample.


While adhering to internationally accepted guidelines, RASP was superior in throughput, cost and data resolution when compared with an experienced human technician. Integration of robotics platforms in the microbiology laboratory is a necessary advancement for future One Health AMR endeavours.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Antimicrobial Resistance and Infectious Disease Laboratory
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Copyright: © 2021 The Authors.
Item Control Page Item Control Page


Downloads per month over past year