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Ethyl formate + nitrogen fumigant: A new, safe, and environmentally friendly option for treating a 20 ft shipping container loaded with general freight

Coetzee, E.M., McKirdy, H., Du, X., McKirdy, S.J. and Ren, Y. (2021) Ethyl formate + nitrogen fumigant: A new, safe, and environmentally friendly option for treating a 20 ft shipping container loaded with general freight. Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Part B .

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2021.1936850
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Abstract

The use of shipping containers for cargo transportation has the potential to transport insect pests from infested to non-infested areas. Fumigation is required as an appropriate biosecurity measure to exterminate insect pests. Fumigation trials were conducted in a 20 ft general purpose (GP) shipping container. Four species of mixed-age cultures, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) were used for bioassays. Ninety g m−3 of ethyl formate + nitrogen formed non-flammable ethyl formate fumigant formulation was released into the container. The fumigation yielded sufficient concentration × time (Ct) products at a range of 437.54–449.19 g h m−3 in the container for exterminating all life stages. Ethyl formate left no residue in treated drinks. This study demonstrated that on site generation of a non-flammable ethyl formate and nitrogen fumigant can be achieved and this new application technology ensures that ethyl formate distributes evenly in the container within 30 min after application and with a variation of <3%. The research further demonstrated that an ethyl formate + nitrogen application can be used as a pre-shipment treatment for controlling all the stages of insect pests in a shipping container. After a fumigation holding period and ventilation of 15 min, ethyl formate was successfully removed from the container at 0.5–35ppm in different locations. The levels of ethyl formate in the workspace were <0.5 ppm during application, fumigation, and aeriation, which is about 5% of the 100 ppm level for ethyl formate.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Food Futures Institute
Harry Butler Institute
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/61277
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