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Modelling mass crowd using discrete event simulation: A case study of integrated tawaf and sayee rituals during Hajj

Owaidah, A.A., Olaru, D., Bennamoun, M., Sohel, F. and Khan, R.N. (2021) Modelling mass crowd using discrete event simulation: A case study of integrated tawaf and sayee rituals during Hajj. IEEE Access, 9 . pp. 79424-79448.

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Abstract

Hajj is a mass gathering event that takes place annually in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Typically, around three million people participate in the event and perform rituals that involve their movements within strict space and time restrictions. Despite efforts by the Hajj organisers, such massive crowd gathering and movement cause overcrowding related problems at the Hajj sites. Several previous simulation studies on Hajj focused on the rituals individually. Tawaf, followed by Sayee, are two important rituals that are performed by all the pilgrims at the same venue on the same day. These events have a strong potential for crowd buildup and related problems. As opposed the previous works in the literature, in this paper we study these two events jointly, rather than separately. We use ExtendSim, a Discrete Event Simulation tool, to integrate the Tawaf and Sayee rituals into one model. The validated model was applied to a wide range of scenarios where different percentages of pilgrims were allocated to the various Tawaf and Sayee areas. The effect of such allocations on the time to complete Tawaf and Sayee indicate strategies for managing these two key Hajj rituals.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Information Technology, Mathematics and Statistics
Publisher: IEEE
Copyright: © 2021 The Authors.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/61176
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