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Associations between suboptimal sleep and smoking, poor nutrition, harmful alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity (‘SNAP Risks’): A comparison of people with and without a mental health condition in an Australian community survey

Metse, A.P.ORCID: 0000-0002-8641-1024, Clinton-McHarg, T., Skinner, E., Yogaraj, Y., Colyvas, K. and Bowman, J. (2021) Associations between suboptimal sleep and smoking, poor nutrition, harmful alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity (‘SNAP Risks’): A comparison of people with and without a mental health condition in an Australian community survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (11). Article 5946.

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Abstract

Introduction: People with a mental health condition experience disproportionate morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. This inequity has been largely attributed to a higher prevalence of chronic disease risk behaviours including smoking, poor nutrition, harmful alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity (‘SNAP risks’). Suboptimal sleep is highly prevalent among people with a mental health condition and, as an identified risk behaviour for several chronic diseases, has been implicated as an additional contributor to this health inequity. Research involving people without a mental health condition suggests associations between poor sleep and each SNAP risk; however, interactions with mental health status have not been reported in an Australian population. This study explored associations between suboptimal sleep and all four SNAP risks, and assessed whether they vary by mental health status. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study (n = 1265) was undertaken using self-report data from a cross-sectional telephone survey of Australian adults. Based on national guidelines and recommendations that indicate when someone might be at risk of adverse health effects, SNAP risks and sleep variables were reduced to two levels: ‘at risk’ or ‘not at risk’; and ‘appropriate’ or ‘suboptimal’, respectively. Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression models explored associations between suboptimal sleep, SNAP risks and mental health status. Results: Fifteen per cent (n = 184) of participants identified as having a mental health condition in the past 12 months. Being at risk of adverse health effects due to smoking had the strongest association with several measures of suboptimal sleep (ps < 0.05). Two-way interactions revealed that being at risk of adverse health effects due to alcohol use and physical inactivity resulted in a significantly greater likelihood of suboptimal sleep duration (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.64; OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.69) and nap duration (OR 7.96, 95% CI 1.90 to 33.22), respectively, for people with a mental health condition compared to those without. Conclusions: The findings suggest associations between suboptimal sleep and smoking, risky alcohol consumption and physical inactivity, with the latter two perhaps being stronger among people with a mental health condition compared to those without such a condition. Poor sleep should be considered in interventions to address smoking, alcohol and physical activity; and vice versa. This study lends further support for the value of multirisk lifestyle interventions to promote physical and mental health for people with mental health conditions.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Psychology, Counselling, Exercise Science and Chiropractic
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors
United Nations SDGs: Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/61091
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