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Molecular analysis of cryptosporidiosis cases in Western Australia in 2019 and 2020 supports the occurrence of two swimming pool associated outbreaks and reveals the emergence of a rare C. hominis IbA12G3 subtype

Braima, K., Zahedi, A.ORCID: 0000-0002-0165-3797, Egan, S.ORCID: 0000-0003-4395-4069, Austen, J.ORCID: 0000-0002-1826-1634, Xiao, L., Feng, Y., Witham, B., Pingault, N., Perera, S., Oskam, C., Reid, S. and Ryan, U.ORCID: 0000-0003-2710-9324 (2021) Molecular analysis of cryptosporidiosis cases in Western Australia in 2019 and 2020 supports the occurrence of two swimming pool associated outbreaks and reveals the emergence of a rare C. hominis IbA12G3 subtype. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 92 . Article 104859.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104859
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Abstract

Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan parasite and due to its resistance to chlorine is a major cause of swimming pool-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks. The present study combined contact tracing and molecular techniques to analyse cryptosporidiosis cases and outbreaks in Western Australia in 2019 and 2020. In the 2019 outbreak, subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene identified 89.0% (16/18) of samples were caused by the C. hominis IdA15G1 subtype. Amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS) at the gp60 locus identified five C. hominis IdA15G1 subtype samples that also had C. hominis IdA14 subtype DNA, while multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis on a subset (n = 14) of C. hominis samples identified three IdA15G1 samples with a 6 bp insertion at the end of the trinucleotide repeat region of the cp47 gene. In 2020, 88.0% (73/83) of samples typed were caused by the relatively rare C. hominis subtype IbA12G3. Four mixed infections were observed by NGS with three IdA15G1/ IdA14 mixtures and one C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 sample mixed with IIaA16G3R1. No genetic diversity using MLST was detected. Epidemiological and molecular data indicates that the outbreaks in 2019 and 2020 were each potentially from swimming pool point sources and a new C. hominis subtype IbA12G3 is emerging in Australia. The findings of the present study are important for understanding the introduction and transmission of rare Cryptosporidium subtypes to vulnerable populations.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Harry Butler Institute
Centre for Biosecurity and One Health
Publisher: Elsevier
Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/60712
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