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Feline parvovirus seroprevalence is high in cats from disease outbreak and non‐outbreak regions in Australia

Jenkins, E.L., Davis, C., Carrai, M., Ward, M., O'Keeffe, S., van Boeijen, M., Beveridge, L., Desario, C., Buonavoglia, C., Beatty, J., Decaro, N. and Barrs, V. (2020) Feline parvovirus seroprevalence is high in cats from disease outbreak and non‐outbreak regions in Australia. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 34 (6). ID11.

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Multiple, epizootic outbreaks of feline panleukopenia (FPL) caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) were recorded in shelter‐housed and owned cats in eastern Australia between 2014 and 2018. Most affected cats were unvaccinated. We hypothesized that low population immunity was a major driver of re‐emergent FPL. The aim of this study was to (i) determine the prevalence and predictors of seroprotective titers to FPV among shelter‐housed and owned cats, and (ii) compare the prevalence of seroprotection between a region affected by FPL outbreaks (Sydney, eastern Australia), and a region with no recent history of FPL outbreaks (Perth, western Australia). FPV antibodies were detected by hemagglutination inhibition assay on sera from 523 cats and titers ≥1:40 were considered protective. Socioeconomic indices based on postcode and Australian Bureau of Statistics census data were included in the risk factor analysis. The overall prevalence of protective FPV antibody titers was 94.3% and was similar between cats from outbreak (94.3%) and non‐outbreak regions (94.2%). On multivariable logistic regression analysis vaccinated cats were 29.94 times more likely to have protective FPV titers than cats not known to be vaccinated. Cats from postcodes of relatively less socioeconomic disadvantage were 5.93 times more likely to have protective FPV titers. The predictors identified for FPV seroprotective titers indicate that support targeted vaccination strategies in regions of socioeconomic disadvantage would be beneficial to increase population immunity. The critical level of vaccine coverage required to prevent FPL outbreaks should be determined to support initiatives to prevent the reemergence of this frequently fatal disease.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals LLC.
Copyright: © 2020 The Authors.
Other Information: 2020 ACVIM Forum On Demand Research Abstract Program
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