Murdoch University Research Repository

Welcome to the Murdoch University Research Repository

The Murdoch University Research Repository is an open access digital collection of research
created by Murdoch University staff, researchers and postgraduate students.

Learn more

High Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in Home Gardens in Western Australia

Shivaperumal, N., Chang, B.J., Riley, T.V. and Elkins, C.A. (2020) High Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in Home Gardens in Western Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 87 (1). pp. 1-9.

Link to Published Version:
*Subscription may be required


In recent years, community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) has emerged as a significant health problem, accounting for ∼50% of all CDI cases. We hypothesized that the home garden environment could contribute to the dissemination of C. difficile spores in the community and investigated 23 homes in 22 suburbs of Perth, Western Australia. We identified a high prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in this environment. In total, 97 samples consisting of soil (n = 48), compost (n = 15), manure (n = 12), and shoe sole swabs (n = 22) were collected. All samples were cultured anaerobically on C. difficile ChromID agar and enriched in brain heart infusion broth, and isolates were characterized by toxin gene PCR and PCR ribotyping. Two-thirds (67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 76%) of home garden samples, including 79% (95% CI, 68 to 91%) of soil, 67% (95% CI, 43 to 90%) of compost, 83% (95% CI, 62% to 100%) of manure, and 32% (95% CI, 12 to 51%) of shoe sole samples, contained C. difficile. Of 87 isolates, 38% (95% CI, 28 to 48%) were toxigenic, and 26 PCR ribotypes (RTs), 5 of which were novel, were identified. The toxigenic C. difficile strain RT014/020 was the most prevalent RT. Interestingly, 19 esculin hydrolysis-negative strains giving white colonies were identified on C. difficile ChromID agar, 5 of which were novel toxigenic RTs that produced only toxin A. Clearly, there is the potential for transmission of C. difficile in the community due to the contamination of home gardens. Our findings highlight the importance of a “One Health” approach to dealing with CDI.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Medical, Molecular and Forensic Sciences
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Copyright: © 2021 American Society for Microbiology
Item Control Page Item Control Page