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A Review of β-Lactam–Associated Neutropenia and Implications for Cross-reactivity

Cimino, C., Allos, B.M. and Phillips, E.J. (2020) A Review of β-Lactam–Associated Neutropenia and Implications for Cross-reactivity. Annals of Pharmacotherapy . Online First.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1177/1060028020975646
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Abstract

Objective:

To review the incidence, management, and current understanding of the pathophysiology of β-lactam–induced neutropenia and to critically evaluate the practicality and safety of direct substitution to an alternative β-lactam in the setting of this reaction.

Data Sources:

A literature analysis using the PubMed and Ovid search engines (July 1968 to October 2020) was performed using the search terms neutropenia, leukopenia, β-lactam, nonchemotherapy, agranulocytosis, and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor).

Study Selection and Data Extraction:

The included English-language studies evaluated the incidence, mechanism, and/or management of β-lactam–induced neutropenia in pediatric or adult patients.

Data Synthesis:

Drug-induced neutropenia is a well-documented adverse reaction of β-lactam antibiotics, with an incidence of approximately 10% following at least 2 weeks of intravenous therapy. However, multiple gaps in knowledge remain in the mechanism of pathophysiology and optimal management of this reaction. Both direct toxic and immune-mediated mechanisms have been implicated. Although the cornerstone of management includes cessation of the offending agent, controversy exists on the appropriateness of direct substitution or future use of an alternative β-lactam.
Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice:

Given the frequency of use and superiority of β-lactams over alternative therapy for several infectious disease states, practical recommendations are needed on the management and safe use of β-lactams following β-lactam–induced neutropenia.

Conclusion:

Future use of β-lactams with differing R1 side chains, particularly those from a separate class, should not be deemed contraindicated following β-lactam–induced neutropenia and may be considered when indicated, with close laboratory monitoring.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: Harvey Whitney Books Company
Copyright: © 2020 by SAGE Publications
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/58945
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