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The Cardio-Med survey tool: development and pilot validation of a FFQ in a multicultural cardiology cohort

Kucianski, T., Thodis, A., Vally, H., Kouris-Blazos, A., Moschonis, G., Wilson, A., van Gaal, W., Tierney, A. and Itsiopoulos, C. (2020) The Cardio-Med survey tool: development and pilot validation of a FFQ in a multicultural cardiology cohort. Public Health Nutrition, 23 (13). pp. 2303-2313.

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(i) Describe the development of a multipurpose Cardio-Med survey tool (CMST) comprising a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to measure dietary intake in multicultural patients with or at high risk of CVD and (ii) report pilot evaluation of test–retest reliability and validity of the FFQ in measuring energy and nutrient intakes.


The CMST was developed to identify CVD risk factors and assess diet quality over 1 year using an FFQ. Design of the ninety-three-item FFQ involved developing food portion photographs, and a list of foods appropriate for the Australian multicultural population allowing the capture of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern. The FFQ was administered twice, 2 weeks apart to assess test–retest reliability, whilst validity was assessed by comparison of the FFQ with a 3-d food record (3DFR).


The Northern Hospital and St Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.


Thirty-eight participants aged 34–81 years with CVD or at high risk.


Test–retest reliability of the FFQ was good: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0·52 (Na) to 0·88 (alcohol) (mean 0·79), with energy and 70 % of measured nutrients being above 0·75. Validity was moderate: ICC ranged from 0·08 (Na) to 0·94 (alcohol) (mean 0·59), with energy and 85 % of measured nutrients being above 0·5. Bland–Altman plots demonstrated good levels of agreement between the FFQ and 3DFR for carbohydrates, protein, alcohol, vitamin D and Na.


The CMST FFQ demonstrated good test–retest reliability and moderate validity for measuring dietary energy and nutrients in a multicultural Australian cardiology population.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Copyright: © 2020 The Authors
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