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Incidence of antithrombin deficiency and Anti-Cardiolipin antibodies after severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective cohort study

Kalgudi, S. and Ho, K.M. (2020) Incidence of antithrombin deficiency and Anti-Cardiolipin antibodies after severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective cohort study. Neurocritical Care .

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01026-x
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Abstract

Background

Animal studies suggested that cerebral mitochondrial cardiolipin phospholipids were released after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to the pathogenesis of thromboembolism.

Objectives

To determine the incidence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies after severe TBI and whether this was related to the severity of TBI and development of venous thromboembolism.

Methods

Serial anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin levels, viscoelastic testing, and coagulation parameters were measured on admission, day-1, and between day-5 and day-7 in patients with severe TBI requiring intracranial pressure monitoring.

Results

Of the 40 patients included (85% male and median age 42 years), 7 (18%) had a raised Ig-G or Ig-M anti-cardiolipin antibody titer after TBI. Antithrombin levels were below the normal level—especially on day-0 and day-1—in 15 patients (38%), and 14 patients (38%) developed an increase in maximum clot firmness on the viscoelastic test in conjunction with elevations in fibrinogen concentration and platelet count. Four patients (10%) developed deep vein thrombosis, and 10 patients (25%) died, both of which were not significantly related to the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (P = 0.619 and P = 0.638, respectively).

Conclusions

A reduction in antithrombin level and development of anti-cardiolipin antibodies were not rare immediately after severe TBI; these abnormalities were followed by an increase in in vitro clot strength due to elevations in fibrinogen concentration and platelet count. The quantitative relationships between the development of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and severity of TBI or clinical thromboembolic events deserve further investigation.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Humana Press Inc
Copyright: © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/56612
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