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Immobilization quality and cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine alone compared with etorphine–azaperone in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi)

Gaudio, E., Laubscher, L.L., Pfitzer, S., Raath, J.P., Hoffman, L.C. and De Benedictis, G.M. (2020) Immobilization quality and cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine alone compared with etorphine–azaperone in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia .

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Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2019.10.012
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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the immobilization quality and cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine alone compared with etorphine–azaperone in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi).

Study design

Blinded, randomized, crossover design.

Animals

A total of 12 boma-habituated female blesbok weighing [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] 57.5 ± 2.5 kg.

Methods

Each animal was administered etorphine (0.09 mg kg–1) or etorphine–azaperone (0.09 mg kg–1; 0.35 mg kg–1) intramuscularly with 1-week intertreatment washout period. Time to first sign of altered state of consciousness and immobilization time were recorded. Physiological variables were recorded, arterial blood samples were taken during a 40-minute immobilization period, and naltrexone (mean ± SD: 1.83 ± 0.06 mg kg–1) was intravenously administered. Recovery times were documented, and induction, immobilization and recovery were subjectively scored. Statistical analyses were performed; p < 0.05 was significant.

Results

No difference was observed in time to first sign, immobilization time and recovery times between treatments. Time to head up was longer with etorphine–azaperone (0.5 ± 0.2 versus 0.4 ± 0.2 minutes; p = 0.015). Etorphine caused higher arterial blood pressures (mean: 131 ± 17 versus 110 ± 11 mmHg, p < 0.0001), pH, rectal temperature and arterial oxygen partial pressure (59.2 ± 7.7 versus 42.2 ± 9.8 mmHg), but lower heart (p = 0.002) and respiratory rates (p = 0.01). Etorphine–azaperone combination led to greater impairment of ventilatory function, with higher end-tidal carbon dioxide (p < 0.0001) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (58.0 ± 4.5 versus 48.1 ± 5.1 mmHg). Immobilization quality was greater with etorphine-azaperone than with etorphine alone (median scores: 4 versus 3; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions and clinical relevance

Both treatments provided satisfactory immobilization of blesbok; however, in addition to a deeper level of immobilization, etorphine–azaperone caused greater ventilatory impairment. Oxygen supplementation is recommended with both treatments.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Copyright: © 2020 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/56397
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