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Positive nasal Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction assay is not sensitive in predicting concurrent or subsequent Staphylococcus aureus infection in critically ill patients

Kanagasingham, K.C., Ho, K.M. and Robinson, J.O. (2020) Positive nasal Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction assay is not sensitive in predicting concurrent or subsequent Staphylococcus aureus infection in critically ill patients. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 48 (3). pp. 196-202.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1177/0310057X20911925
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Abstract

Staphylococcal infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Using data from 16,681 patients who had a nasal Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Royal Perth Hospital between March 2006 and September 2016, this retrospective cohort study assessed whether nasal S. aureus colonisation on admission to an ICU was predictive of concurrent or subsequent S. aureus infections. Culture-proven S. aureus infections were identified using the hospital microbiology database. Of the 16,681 patients included, 565 (3.4%) had a positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) assay, 146 (0.9%) had a positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) assay and eight (0.05%) had both positive MRSA and MSSA assays. Of those 565 patients with a positive MRSA PCR assay, 79 (13.8%) had concurrent or subsequent MRSA infections. Of those 146 patients with a positive MSSA PCR assay, only 5 (3.4%) had MSSA infection. The sensitivity and specificity for the MRSA PCR assay in predicting concurrent or subsequent MRSA infection were 72.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 63.4%–80.8%) and 97.0% (95% CI 96.8%–97.3%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the MSSA PCR assay in predicting concurrent or subsequent MSSA infection were 3.3% (95% CI 1.1%–7.6%) and 99.1% (95% CI 98.9%–99.2%), respectively. Both nasal MRSA and MSSA PCR assays had a high specificity and negative predictive value in predicting MRSA and MSSA infections, respectively, suggesting that in centres without endemic S. aureus infections, a negative nasal MRSA or MSSA PCR assay may be useful to reduce unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy against S. aureus.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Australian Society of Anaesthetists
Copyright: © 2020 by Australian Society of Anaesthetists
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/56178
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