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Identification and diagnosis of whole body and fragments of Trogoderma granarium and Trogoderma variabile using visible near infrared hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with deep learning

Agarwal, M.ORCID: 0000-0002-8781-3850, Al-Shuwaili, T., Nugaliyadde, A., Wang, P., Wong, K.W. and Ren, Y. (2020) Identification and diagnosis of whole body and fragments of Trogoderma granarium and Trogoderma variabile using visible near infrared hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with deep learning. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 173 . Article 105438.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105438
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Abstract

The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, is the most critical biosecurity pest threat which threatens the grains industry worldwide. To prevent incursion of the khapra beetle, very accurate and reliable diagnostic tools are required to differentiate the khapra beetle from other morphologically, closely related Trogoderma sp., in particular the larva stage. However, at present, it can only be identified by highly skilled taxonomists. Furthermore, often suspected Trogoderma sp. found in grain products are the body fractions such as larval skins or fragmented adult, which are impossible to diagnose morphologically. This work explored the combination of visible near infrared hyperspectroscopy (VNIH) and deep learning tools to identify the khapra beetle. About 2000 hyperspectral images were acquired under this study. Images of T. granarium and Trogoderma variabile, adult, larvae, larvae skin, fragments of adult and larvae images, were subjected to two deep learning models; Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Capsule Network for analysis. Overall, above 90% accuracy was obtained with both models, whereas Capsule Network achieved a higher accuracy of 96%. For whole adult body and adult fragments, the accuracy achieved was 96.2% and 91.7%, respectively. For whole larvae, larvae skin and larvae fragment, accuracies of 93.4%, 91.6%, and 90.3% were achieved. Ventral orientation gave better accuracy over dorsal orientation of the insects for both larvae and adult stages. Based on the above results, VNIH imaging technology coupled with appropriate machine learning tools can be used to identify one of the most notorious stored grain pests, the khapra beetle, from other morphologically similar Trogoderma sp like T. variabile. Particularly, the technology offers a new approach and possibility of an effective identification of Trogoderma sp. from its body fragments and larvae skins, which are otherwise impossible to diagnose taxonomically.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Copyright: © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/55705
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