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Feline parvovirus seroprevalence is high in domestic cats from disease outbreak and non-outbreak regions in Australia

Jenkins, E., Davis, C., Carrai, M., Ward, M.P., O'Keeffe, S., van Boeijen, M., Beveridge, L., Desario, C., Buonavoglia, C., Beatty, J.A., Decaro, N. and Barrs, V.R. (2020) Feline parvovirus seroprevalence is high in domestic cats from disease outbreak and non-outbreak regions in Australia. Viruses, 12 (3). Article 320.

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Abstract

Multiple, epizootic outbreaks of feline panleukopenia (FPL) caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) occurred in eastern Australia between 2014 and 2018. Most affected cats were unvaccinated. We hypothesised that low population immunity was a major driver of re-emergent FPL. The aim of this study was to (i) determine the prevalence and predictors of seroprotective titres to FPV among shelter-housed and owned cats, and (ii) compare the prevalence of seroprotection between a region affected and unaffected by FPL outbreaks. FPV antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition assay on sera from 523 cats and titres ≥1:40 were considered protective. Socioeconomic indices based on postcode and census data were included in the risk factor analysis. The prevalence of protective FPV antibody titres was high overall (94.3%), even though only 42% of cats were known to be vaccinated, and was not significantly different between outbreak and non-outbreak regions. On multivariable logistic regression analysis vaccinated cats were 29.94 times more likely to have protective FPV titres than cats not known to be vaccinated. Cats from postcodes of relatively less socioeconomic disadvantage were 5.93 times more likely to have protective FPV titres. The predictors identified for FPV seroprotective titres indicate targeted vaccination strategies in regions of socioeconomic disadvantage would be beneficial to increase population immunity. The critical level of vaccine coverage required to halt FPV transmission and prevent FPL outbreaks should be determined.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: MDPI
Copyright: © 2020 MDPI
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/55278
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