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An epidemiological study of diseases affecting livestock on the islands of Bali and Lombok, Indonesia

Restiati, Made (1996) An epidemiological study of diseases affecting livestock on the islands of Bali and Lombok, Indonesia. Masters by Research thesis, Murdoch University.

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This study was designed to evaluate various sources of disease data to determine those diseases affecting livestock (cattle, chickens, goats and pigs) on the islands of Bali and Lombok, Indonesia. A retrospective study was conducted comparing data collected from eight Poskeswans (Animal Health Posts), the Provincial Government Livestock Service (PGLS), and two laboratories (the provincial Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) in Bali and a smaller type B laboratory in Lombok). An abattoir survey was undertaken to identify the subclinical and parasitic diseases of cattle and pigs. Farmers from two villages were interviewed to determine routine management and husbandry procedures adopted. The relative importance of diseases in each of the data sources was determined by calculating proportional disease rates.

Parasitic infections (helminthiasis, fascioliasis and coccidiosis) were the most common diseases of cattle, diagnosed in 21.8% of animals examined by field veterinarians, 18.3% of all submissions to the DIC and 9.7% of specimens submitted to the type B laboratory. Over half (57.4%) of the cattle examined at the abattoir were infected with gastrointestinal parasites, and cattle infected with Fasciola spp. were 2.7 times more likely to be in poor body condition than non-infected animals.

Gastrointestinal parasites were also identified as major diseases in pigs and goats being diagnosed in 26.3% and 69.1% of submissions to the DIC, respectively. Over half (55%) of pigs examined at the abattoir showed previous evidence of infection with Ascaris suum and 39.7% had current parasitic infections.

Although parasitic diseases were frequently diagnosed in cattle, pigs and goats, infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease, were diagnosed more commonly in chickens. Similarly the diseases recorded by the PGLS were primarily infectious in nature, and included diseases with the potential for high morbidity and mortality such as haemorrhagic septicaemia, bovine ephemeral fever and Newcastle disease. These diseases were less frequently reported in the field than other clinical and subclinical diseases. Gastrointestinal parasitism was not included in the diseases reported by the PGLS.

Diseases diagnosed by the DIG generally required more technical input, such as involving serology, microbiology or detection of histopathological changes, than those identified by the staff of the type B laboratory. Many of the diseases commonly diagnosed by the type B laboratory were based on the presenting clinical signs described by the submitter. Diagnoses made by field veterinarians primarily relied on the presenting clinical signs, and those made at the abattoir were made based on the presence of pathognomonic pathological lesions or the detection of parasites.

The livestock management and husbandry practices adopted by farmers in a village in Bali were different to those from a village in Lombok. Farmers from Bali were more likely to adopt disease control procedures and use the service of veterinarians than farmers from Lombok. More farmers from Bali reported sick goats and pigs, while sick cattle and chickens were more common in Lombok. Most clinical signs recognised by farmers were non-specific and the specific diseases affecting livestock in the villages could not be identified.

It is concluded that data which is currently available, and data which can be easily collected from abattoirs, can be used to study the epidemiology of livestock diseases in Indonesia; however the accuracy of the diagnoses and the biases in the data sources must be carefully evaluated. Inclusion of data on the population at risk and host characteristics would significantly improve the value of this data. Parasitic diseases were recognised as important problems of livestock in Bali and Lombok, and these diseases are likely to have a greater impact on the animals’ productivity than are infectious diseases.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters by Research)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary Studies
Notes: Note to the author: If you would like to make your thesis openly available on Murdoch University Library's Research Repository, please contact: Thank you.
Supervisor(s): Robertson, Ian
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