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Battery energy storage system control algorithm design

Maskey, Anuj (2019) Battery energy storage system control algorithm design. Honours thesis, Murdoch University.

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Microgrid is based on smaller decentralised low voltage system with the use of modern power technology puts different types of Distributed Energy sources solar power, wind power, and energy storage devices together, improving the electrical supply reliability, reducing the feeder loss and ensures the stability of the voltage. The current trend of incorporating energy storage devices in the microgrid is aimed to mitigate the power imbalance and improve the electrical supply reliability. The thesis uses Kalbarri, Western Australia as a case study site with an aim to investigate the appropriate battery technology and formulate control algorithm for the microgrid.

The thesis starts by examining the Australian electrical market including the: socio‐economic, political, and regulatory environment and presents the rationale of having an Energy Storage System in rural Australia. The thesis investigates the various available BESS battery technology options and suggests the most appropriate options for the BESS comprised Kalbarri microgrid model. The MATLAB/Simulink BESS control algorithm design model is presented with an aim to test voltage and frequency regulation under different load condition, including the process of seamless transition from the grid‐connected operation to a grid‐disconnected operation of the microgrid.

The research presents a theoretical control model based on the Power Control theory and existing academic literature on the topic. The thesis examines the control algorithm design to regulate the frequency and voltage using the BESS system to connect to the main three phase AC grid. The overall site model includes a power conversion of two DC sources: BESS and PV system. The BESS control algorithm model comprises of a Power Conversion system that use three‐phase full bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) with LCL filter and a Power Control System based on Phased Lock Loop to synchronise with the grid frequency. The Power Control system uses a three‐phase sinusoidal abc frame conversion to a DC reference signal dq0 frame to incorporate PI controller with an aim that the intermittence of the renewable energy generation Wind and PV system can be maintained to a balanced state in the grid within a short frame of time. The BESS control algorithm model uses a Current Controlled Voltage Source Converter for its simple controller design, better performance during grid fault and the overall cost saving of the system. The thesis simulation utilized CCVSC for its tight regulation of the line current, mainly VSC protection against overcurrent and a high accuracy instantaneous current control.

However, the author acknowledges the simulation result indicate an anomaly with voltage control while using CCVSC in the control algorithm model in power source transition test condition. Hence, as a part of future improvement with a focus on the overcurrent, the author concludes possible testing with the VCVSC based control algorithm model for rapid and continuous response for smooth dynamic control and automated P and Q power control in both steady‐state and dynamic system conditions.

Finally, the impact on the microgrid is presented with an in‐depth analysis of the results, including the achievements, innovations, challenges and the suggestion for future improvement in the discussion section of the report.

Item Type: Thesis (Honours)
Murdoch Affiliation: Engineering and Energy
Supervisor(s): Arefi, Ali
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