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Studies on the role of nutrition and other factors on the in vitro culture of Anthurium andreanum Lind

Mulleegadoo, Karuna Devi (1990) Studies on the role of nutrition and other factors on the in vitro culture of Anthurium andreanum Lind. Masters by Research thesis, Murdoch University.

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Anthurium anrdreanum is an important cut flower on the world market. Unfortunately, the conventional methods of propagation are slow and moreover, only limited information exists in the prospects of using tissue culture as an alternative method of propagation. The purpose of this study was, therefore to examine the influence of nutritional, explant and environmental factors on the growth of A. andreanum in vitro.

Whole leaves and petioles were washed under running tap water for .lb minutes arid sterilised in 2% NaOCl for 35 and 45 minutes respectively. They were then rinsed in three changes of sterile deionised water. Explant viability was 90% in the case of leaves and 80% for petioles. Various methods of sterilisation were used on nodal explants without success.

The ionic composition of the medium was a determining factor in the growth of the. explants. Growth was enhanced significantly by reducing the concentration of macronutrients end iron to 1/4 MS strength. The cu ltures did not grow on ammonium or nitrate as sole sources of nitrogen. Growth was also inhibited when a high ratio of ammonium to nitrogen was present in the culture medium. Lowering the concentration of potassium and micronutrients in the medium did not alter the growth responses.

The source and concentration of the sugar used also had a significant effect on callus formation. On fructose and glucose, growth was maximal at 58.4 rnM and 87.6 rnM respectively. On sucrose., good responses were obtained in the range of 29.2 to 116.8 mM and on a mixture of glucose and fructose, maximum callus formation occurred at 58.4 and 116.8 mM. Also, at 175.2 mM, glucose was the sugar which supported highest callus formation.

The auxins IAA, I BA and 2,4-D gave nearly similar responses and they were all superior to NAA. BAP was a more effective cytokinin than 2iP; only 4.4 pM of the growth regulator were needed to generate a callus growth rating of about 3 as compared to 24.5 pM 2iP. At low concentration of BAP, 0.88 pM, simultaneous use of 2iP had an additive effect on callus formation. At concentrations of 4.4 pM and higher, incorporation of 2iP in the medium generally reduced callus formation.

Significantly better growth was achieved on a solid medium than on a liquid one. Maximum callus formation occurred at agar concentrations of 0.4, 0,8 and 1.2%. A sharp drop in callus formation occurred at 1.6% and at 4%, virtually, no callus was formed.

Growth was also determined by various explant factors. Juvenile tissues grew better than mature ones and more callus was formed on 1.0 and 1.5 cm than on 0.5 cm explants. However, the efficiency of callus formation was greater with 0.5 and 1.0 cm explants than with the largest explant.

Buds were formed on subcultured callus but they did not readily grow on any of the media tested On the other hand, plantlets were readily formed by subculturing nodes of aseptic plantlets on the basal medium or on 1.0 pM IAA There is also some evidence that morphogenesis was influenced by the state of growth of the donor plants. Explants isolated from plants that were still in the vegetative state were able to differentiate into plantlets whereas explants taken from plants that were in full bloom did not form shoots.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters by Research)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Notes: Note to the author: If you would like to make your thesis openly available on Murdoch University Library's Research Repository, please contact: Thank you.
Supervisor(s): Considine, John
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