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Resistance to critically important antimicrobials in Australian silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) and evidence of anthropogenic origins

Mukerji, S., Stegger, M., Truswell, A.V., Laird, T., Jordan, D., Abraham, R.J., Harb, A., Barton, M., O’Dea, M.ORCID: 0000-0002-2757-7585 and Abraham, S. (2019) Resistance to critically important antimicrobials in Australian silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) and evidence of anthropogenic origins. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 74 (9). pp. 2566-2574.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz242
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Abstract

Objectives
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs) amongst Gram-negative bacteria can feasibly be transferred amongst wildlife, humans and domestic animals. This study investigated the ecology, epidemiology and origins of CIA-resistant Escherichia coli carried by Australian silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae), a gregarious avian wildlife species that is a common inhabitant of coastal areas with high levels of human contact.

Methods
Sampling locations were widely dispersed around the perimeter of the Australian continent, with sites separated by up to 3500 km. WGS was used to study the diversity and molecular characteristics of resistant isolates to ascertain their epidemiological origin.

Results
Investigation of 562 faecal samples revealed widespread occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (21.7%) and fluoroquinolone-resistant (23.8%) E. coli. Genome sequencing revealed that CIA-resistant E. coli isolates (n = 284) from gulls predominantly belonged to human-associated extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) clones, including ST131 (17%), ST10 (8%), ST1193 (6%), ST69 (5%) and ST38 (4%). Genomic analysis revealed that gulls carry pandemic ExPEC-ST131 clades (O25:H4 H30-R and H30-Rx) and globally emerging fluoroquinolone-resistant ST1193 identified among humans worldwide. Comparative analysis revealed that ST131 and ST1193 isolates from gulls overlapped extensively with human clinical isolates from Australia and overseas. The present study also detected single isolates of carbapenem-resistant E. coli (ST410-blaOXA-48) and colistin-resistant E. coli (ST345-mcr-1).

Conclusions
The carriage of diverse CIA-resistant E. coli clones that strongly resemble pathogenic clones from humans suggests that gulls can act as ecological sponges indiscriminately accumulating and disseminating CIA-resistant bacteria over vast distances.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infectious Disease Laboratory
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Copyright: © 2019 Oxford University Press
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/52031
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