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Seizure and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated encephalomyelitis in a retrospective cohort of Chinese patients

Zhong, X., Zhou, Y., Chang, Y., Wang, J., Shu, Y., Sun, X., Peng, L., Lau, A.Y., Kermode, A.G. and Qiu, W. (2019) Seizure and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated encephalomyelitis in a retrospective cohort of Chinese patients. Frontiers in Neurology, 10 .

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Abstract

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody associated encephalomyelitis is increasingly being considered a distinct disease entity, with seizures and encephalopathy commonly reported. We investigated the clinical features of MOG-IgG positive patients presenting with seizures and/or encephalopathy in a single cohort.

Methods: Consecutive patients with suspected idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases were recruited from a tertiary University hospital in Guangdong province, China. Subjects with MOG-IgG seropositivity were analyzed according to whether they presented with or without seizure and/or encephalopathy.

Results: Overall, 58 subjects seropositive for MOG-IgG were analyzed, including 23 (40%) subjects presenting with seizures and/or encephalopathy. Meningeal irritation (P = 0.030), fever (P = 0.001), headache (P = 0.001), nausea, and vomiting (P = 0.004) were more commonly found in subjects who had seizures and/or encephalopathy, either at presentation or during the disease course. Nonetheless, there was less optic nerve (4/23, 17.4%, P = 0.003) and spinal cord (6/16, 37.5%, P = 0.037) involvement as compared to subjects without seizures or encephalopathy. Most MOG encephalomyelitis subjects had cortical/subcortical lesions: 65.2% (15/23) in the seizures and/or encephalopathy group and 50.0% (13/26) in the without seizures or encephalopathy group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes were elevated in both groups. Subgroup analysis showed that 30% (7/23) MOG-IgG positive subjects with seizures and/or encephalopathy had been misdiagnosed for central nervous system infection on the basis of meningoencephalitis symptoms and elevated CSF leukocytes (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Seizures and encephalopathy are not rare in MOG encephalomyelitis, and are commonly associated with cortical and subcortical brain lesions. MOG-encephalomyelitis often presents with clinical meningoencephalitis symptoms and abnormal CSF findings mimicking central nervous system infection in pediatric and young adult patients.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Copyright: © 2019 The Author(s)
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/45606
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