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Evolutionary and genomic insights into Clostridioides difficile sequence Type 11: a diverse zoonotic and antimicrobial-resistant lineage of global one health importance

Knight, D.R.ORCID: 0000-0002-9480-4733, Kullin, B., Androga, G.O., Barbut, F., Eckert, C., Johnson, S., Spigaglia, P., Tateda, K., Tsai, P-J, Riley, T.V. and Onderdonk, A.B. (2019) Evolutionary and genomic insights into Clostridioides difficile sequence Type 11: a diverse zoonotic and antimicrobial-resistant lineage of global one health importance. mBio, 10 (2). e00446-19.

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Abstract

Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) sequence type 11 (ST11) is well established in production animal populations worldwide and contributes considerably to the global burden of C. difficile infection (CDI) in humans. Increasing evidence of shared ancestry and genetic overlap of PCR ribotype 078 (RT078), the most common ST11 sublineage, between human and animal populations suggests that CDI may be a zoonosis. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on a collection of 207 ST11 and closely related ST258 isolates of human and veterinary/environmental origin, comprising 16 RTs collected from Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis identified multiple intraspecies and interspecies clonal groups (isolates separated by ≤2 core genome SNVs) in all the major RT sublineages: 078, 126, 127, 033, and 288. Clonal groups comprised isolates spread across different states, countries, and continents, indicative of reciprocal long-range dissemination and possible zoonotic/anthroponotic transmission. Antimicrobial resistance genotypes and phenotypes varied across host species, geographic regions, and RTs and included macrolide/lincosamide resistance (Tn6194 [ermB]), tetracycline resistance (Tn6190 [tetM] and Tn6164 [tet44]), and fluoroquinolone resistance (gyrA/B mutations), as well as numerous aminoglycoside resistance cassettes. The population was defined by a large “open” pan-genome (10,378 genes), a remarkably small core genome of 2,058 genes (only 19.8% of the gene pool), and an accessory genome containing a large and diverse collection of important prophages of the Siphoviridae and Myoviridae. This study provides novel insights into strain relatedness and genetic variability of C. difficile ST11, a lineage of global One Health importance.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: Medical, Molecular and Forensic Sciences
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Copyright: © 2019 American Society for Microbiology
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/45401
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