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Effects of chlortetracycline alone or in combination with direct fed microbials on nursery pig growth performance and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli1

Williams, H.E., Tokach, M.D., Dritz, S.S., Woodworth, J.C., DeRouchey, J.M., Nagaraja, T.G., Goodband, R.D., Pluske, J.R.ORCID: 0000-0002-7194-2164, Chitakasempornkul, K., Bello, N.M. and Amachawadi, R.G. (2018) Effects of chlortetracycline alone or in combination with direct fed microbials on nursery pig growth performance and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli1. Journal of Animal Science, 96 (12). pp. 5166-5178.

Free to read: https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky370
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Abstract

A total of 300 nursery pigs (initially 5.9 ± 0.05 kg BW) were used in a 42-d growth trial to evaluate the effects of feeding a therapeutic level of chlortetracycline (CTC) with or without direct fed microbials (DFM) on growth performance and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of fecal Escherichia coli. CTC is a broad-spectrum in-feed antibiotic commonly used in the swine industry. Weaned pigs (~21 d of age) were allotted to pens based on initial BW and fed a common starter diet for 4 d. Pens were then blocked by BW and allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial consisting of combinations of CTC (none vs. 400 mg/kg from days 0 to 42) and DFM (0 vs. 0.05% DFM 1 vs. 0.05% DFM 2). Fecal samples were collected from three randomly selected pigs from each pen on days 0, 21, and 42 for E. coli isolation and AMR determination. Overall, pigs fed diets containing CTC had improved (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, and BW compared to those not fed CTC with no evidence for any effect of either DFM 1 or DFM 2. Regardless of CTC, inclusion of DFM 2 in diets improved (P < 0.05) ADFI from days 0 to 14 and on day 14 BW compared to diets that did not include DFM 2. The addition of CTC with or without DFMs to nursery pig diets increased (P < 0.05) the probability of AMR to tetracycline and ceftiofur of fecal E. coli isolates, but this resistance generally decreased (P < 0.05) over time. A decrease (P < 0.05) in AMR to ampicillin and tetracycline (TET) throughout the trial was observed, while resistance to ceftriaxone decreased (P < 0.020) from days 0 to 21 and increased from days 21 to 42 amongst dietary treatments regardless of CTC or DFM inclusion in the diet. A CTC × DFM × day interaction (P < 0.015) was observed for streptomycin, whereby from days 21 to 42 AMR increased in diets containing either CTC or DFM 1 alone, but the combination decreased resistance. There was no evidence for any effect of DFMs on AMR of fecal E. coli isolates to any other antibiotics evaluated. In conclusion, therapeutic levels of added CTC with or without DFM inclusion improved nursery pig performance, but increased AMR of fecal E. coli isolates to TET and ceftiofur. A moderate improvement in intake and day 14 BW was observed when DFM 2 was included in the diet with or without CTC, but, except for streptomycin, there was no evidence that added dietary DFMs affected resistance of fecal E. coli to antibiotics.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: American Society of Animal Science
Copyright: © 2018 Oxford University Press
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/42928
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