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Application of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) for understanding biological changes of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) during mating procedures

Al-Khshemawee, H., Du, X., Agarwal, M.ORCID: 0000-0002-8781-3850, Yang, J. and Ren, Y. (2018) Application of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) for understanding biological changes of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) during mating procedures. Molecules, 23 (11). Article 2951.

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Samples from three different mating stages (before, during and after mating) of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were used in this experiment. Samples obtained from whole insects were subjected to extraction with the two mixtures of solvents (acetonitrile/water (A) and methanol/acetonitrile/water (B)) and a comparative study of the extractions using the different solvents was performed. Direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) was employed, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) for the collection, separation and identification of compounds. The method was validated by testing its sensitivity, linearity and reproducibility. The main compounds identified in the three different mating stages were ethyl glycolate, α-farnesene, decanoic acid octyl ester, 2,6,10,15-tetramethylheptadecane, 11-tricosene, 9,12-(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid, methyl stearate, 9-(Z)-tricosene, 9,11-didehydro-lumisterol acetate; 1,54-dibromotetrapentacontane, 9-(Z)-hexadecenoic acid hexadecyl ester, 9-(E)-octadecenoic acid and 9-(Z)-hexadecenoic acid octadecyl ester. The novel findings indicated that compound compositions were not significantly different before and during mating. However, new chemical compounds were generated after mating, such as 1-iodododecane, 9-(Z)-tricosene and 11,13-dimethyl-12-tetradecen-1-acetate which were extracted with both (A) and (B) and dodecanoic acid, (Z)-oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and hentriacontane which were extracted with (A) and ethyl glycolate, 9-hexadecenoic acid hexadecyl ester, palmitoleic acid and 9-(E)-octadecenoic acid, which were extracted with solvent (B). This study has demonstrated that DI-SPME is useful in quantitative insect metabolomics by determining changes in the metabolic compounds in response to mating periods. DI-SPME chemical extraction technology might offer analysis of metabolites that could potentially enhance our understanding on the evolution of the medfly.

Keywords: DI-SPME; GC-MS; Mediterranean fruit fly; extraction solvent; metabolites

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: MDPI
Copyright: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
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