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The role of exercise in glycaemic control and inflammation in overweight/obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

Raman, Aaron (2018) The role of exercise in glycaemic control and inflammation in overweight/obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.

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Evidence suggests the chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Increased rates of exercise participation has been shown to reduce the risk of progression from overweight/obese to T2DM. Paradoxically, exercise results in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of the research herein was to characterize the response in key inflammatory markers and glycaemia to acute exercise and short-term training in sedentary, overweight individuals and individuals with T2DM. Glucose tolerance and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor pathway were assessed following acute (1h and 25h post-exercise) continuous exercise of moderate intensity (CME), and compared with a work- and duration-matched bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE; Chapter 4). There was an improvement in glucose tolerance immediately but not 25h post-exercise, concomitant with increased activity via the IL-6 classical signalling pathway. However, there were no differences between exercise modes and no associations between glucose tolerance and IL-6 signalling markers. The response in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-3, as well as osteopontin was assessed following acute exercise in chapter 5.Continuous glucose monitoring was performed the day prior to exercise (control), the dayof exercise, and the day after exercise and showed no between-day or condition (CME vs. HIIE) differences. However, differences in MMP-3 and osteopontin were identified in a direction consistent with protection against metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Effect of short-term exercise training (12 consecutive days of treadmill exercise) on inflammation and glucose control were assessed in previously diagnosed individuals with T2DM (Chapter 6). There were improvements in glycaemic control and global inflammation status post-training. Acute changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses following the first and last exercise session were also observed. The significance of these findings and future direction of research are discussed in chapter 7.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Psychology and Exercise Science
United Nations SDGs: Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being
Supervisor(s): Fairchild, Timothy, Peiffer, Jeremiah, Currie, Andrew and Hoyne, G.
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