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Taking the challenge: A protocolized approach to optimize Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis in renal transplant recipients

Urbancic, K.F., Ierino, F., Phillips, E., Mount, P.F., Mahony, A. and Trubiano, J.A. (2017) Taking the challenge: A protocolized approach to optimize Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis in renal transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation, 18 (2). pp. 462-466.

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While trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole is considered first‐line therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia prevention in renal transplant recipients, reported adverse drug reactions may limit use and increase reliance on costly and less effective alternatives, often aerosolized pentamidine. We report our experience implementing a protocolized approach to trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole adverse drug reaction assessment and rechallenge to optimize prophylaxis in this patient cohort. We retrospectively reviewed 119 patients receiving Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis prior to and after protocol implementation. Forty‐two patients (35%) had 48 trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole adverse drug reactions documented either at baseline or during the prophylaxis period, of which 83% were non‐immune‐mediated and 17% were immune‐mediated. Significantly more patients underwent trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole rechallenge after protocol implementation (4/22 vs 23/27; P = .0001), with no recurrence of adverse drug reactions in 74%. In those who experienced a new or recurrent reaction (26%), all were mild and self‐limiting with only 1 recurrence of an immune‐mediated reaction. After protocol implementation, aerosolized pentamidine‐associated costs were reduced. The introduction of a standard approach to trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole rechallenge in the context of both prior immune and non‐immune‐mediated reactions was safe and successful in improving the uptake of first‐line Pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis in renal transplant recipients.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing
Copyright: © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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