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Incidence of Nephrotoxicity Among Pediatric Patients Receiving Vancomycin With Either Piperacillin–Tazobactam or Cefepime: A Cohort Study

Cook, K.M., Gillon, J., Grisso, A.G., Banerjee, R., Jimenez-Truque, N., Phillips, E.J. and Van Driest, S.L. (2018) Incidence of Nephrotoxicity Among Pediatric Patients Receiving Vancomycin With Either Piperacillin–Tazobactam or Cefepime: A Cohort Study. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society . In Press.

Link to Published Version: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy030
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Abstract

Background
Recent studies in adults have found an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin–tazobactam (TZP) that is greater than that expected with either medication alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP is associated with an incidence of AKI in pediatric patients higher than that in those on combination therapy with vancomycin and cefepime.

Methods
We performed a retrospective single-center matched-cohort study of pediatric patients who received vancomycin in combination with TZP or cefepime between January 2015 and June 2016. The patients were matched according to chronic disease, age, sex, and number of concomitant nephrotoxic medications at the time of combination antibiotic therapy. The primary outcome was incidence of AKI. Secondary outcomes included differences between groups in time to AKI, resolution of AKI, and effect of vancomycin trough levels on the incidence of nephrotoxicity. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare categorical and continuous variables between treatment groups. Conditional Poisson regression was used to assess the association between AKI and treatment groups. Stratified log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models with shared frailty were used to compare the times to AKI according to treatment group.

Results
Two hundred twenty-eight matched patients were included. AKI developed in 9 (7.9%) of 114 and 33 (28.9%) of 114 patients in the cefepime and TZP groups, respectively (P < .001). Type of combination therapy remained a significant predictor for AKI in multivariate conditional Poisson analysis in which adjustments were made for age, sex, use of concomitant nephrotoxins, and vancomycin dose (relative risk, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1–5.8]; P = .03). AKI developed almost 3 times sooner in the TZP group than in the cefepime group (hazard ratio, 2.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.3–6.1]; P = .006). Sensitivity analyses in which adjustment was made for antibiotic indication in addition to the aforementioned variables and excluding those with gastrointestinal infection revealed similar results.

Conclusion
Among hospitalized children at our institution, combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP was associated with an incidence of AKI higher than that associated with vancomycin and cefepime.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Copyright: © The Author(s) 2018.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/41468
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