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Involvement of Apoptosis in complications of HIV and its treatment

Nolan, D. (2005) Involvement of Apoptosis in complications of HIV and its treatment. In: Badley, Andrew D., (ed.) Cell Death During HIV Infection. CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), Boca Raton FL, USA, pp. 405-420.

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Over the past decade there has been a dramatic transformation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection - one that has brought about an increased focus on the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Although antiretroviral drugs were available in clinical practice from 1987 onward with the introduction of zidovudine (ZDV, also known as azidothymidine or AZT), HIV therapy was initially characterized by the rapid development of drug resistance in patients receiving treatment. This meant that after a period of adequate response to treatment generally lasting several months, the inevitable development of drug resistance meant that patients again experienced and inexorable decline in immunologic status due to a high burden of productive viral infection, becoming susceptible to opportunistic infections and other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)- defining illnesses that were associated with considerable morbidity and, eventually, mortality. However this era came to an end in approximately 1996, with the introduction of combination treatment regimens (commonly referred to as "highly active anti-retroviral therapy" HAART) that were capable of profoundly suppressing HIV replication for prolonged periods, thereby reducing the risk of drug resistance and also halting and subsequently reversing the effects of the virus on immune function in infected patients. According , there are profound prognostic benefits associated wit HAART that are now well documented in observational cohort studies.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Publisher: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis)
Copyright: © Taylor & Francis
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