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Impact of celecoxib on inflammation during cancer surgery: a randomized clinical trial

Hiller, J.G., Sampurno, S., Millen, R., Kuruvilla, N., Ho, K.M., Ramsay, R. and Riedel, B. (2017) Impact of celecoxib on inflammation during cancer surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 64 (5). pp. 497-505.

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Purpose: During cancer surgery, prostaglandin-mediated inflammation may promote and activate micrometastatic disease with a consequent increase in long-term cancer recurrence. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, known to have anti-proliferative properties, may offset such perioperative perturbation. We investigated the effectiveness of these agents to minimize inflammatory changes during cancer surgery.

Methods: Following ethics approval, 32 patients who were to undergo major intracavity cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, clinical trial. The treatment group received 400 mg celecoxib preoperatively followed by five 200 mg 12-hourly doses. The control group received no anti-inflammatory agents. Inflammatory and immunomodulatory end points were measured serially. The primary end points were the measured plasma and urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) levels 48 hours following surgery. Secondary endpoints included interleukin levels, leucocyte profile, and clinical end points.

Results: No differences in the 48-hr plasma or urinary PGEM levels were observed between the celecoxib and control groups. Linear mixed modeling, used to accommodate differences in baseline PGEM levels, showed that celecoxib (cf. control) administration lowered plasma PGEM over the entire 48-hr period following surgery (β-coefficient = −0.38−1; 95% confidence interval: −0.69 to −0.06; P = 0.021). Celecoxib administration also lowered postoperative pain scores.

Discussion: Standard dosing of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib slightly reduced perioperative cyclooxygenase activity during cancer surgery. Given cyclooxygenase’s role in cancer pathways, we recommend dose-finding studies be undertaken before prospective clinical trials are conducted testing the currently unsubstantiated hypothesis that perioperative anti-inflammatory administration improves long-term cancer outcomes. This trial was registered at: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12615000041550;

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Springer New York LLC
Copyright: © 2017 Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society
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