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A catalog of regulatory sequences for trait gene for the genome editing of wheat

Makai, S., Tamás, L. and Juhász, A. (2016) A catalog of regulatory sequences for trait gene for the genome editing of wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7 . Article number 1504.

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Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the xand y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content. The phylogeny of the HMW-GS regulatory regions of the Triticeae demonstrates that a genetic bottleneck may have led to its decreased diversity during domestication and the subsequent cultivation. It has also highlighted the fact that the wild relatives of wheat may offer an unexploited genetic resource for the regulatory region of these genes. Significant research efforts have been made in the public sector and by international agencies, using wild crosses to exploit the available genetic variation, and as a result synthetic hexaploids are now being utilized by a number of breeding companies. However, a newly emerging tool of genome editing provides significantly improved efficiency in exploiting the natural variation in HMW-GS genes and incorporating this into elite cultivars and breeding lines. Recent advancement in the understanding of the regulation of these genes underlines the needs for an overview of the regulatory elements for genome editing purposes.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Western Australian State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Frontiers
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