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Activation of the carbothermic reduction of manganese ore

Welham, N.J. (2002) Activation of the carbothermic reduction of manganese ore. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 67 (1-4). pp. 187-198.

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The effect of extended milling on the carbothermic reduction of a manganese ore has been examined using a combination of thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermodynamic modelling indicated that reduction of MnO2 to MnO was possible at 25 °C, although no reaction was found to occur during milling of the ore with graphite for up to 10 h. For a physical mixture, cryptomelane, KMn8O16, reduced at 500 °C and braunite, Mn7SiO12, at 700 °C after 10 h milling these temperatures were reduced by 200 °C. The initial product was Mn3O4, although in the 10-h-milled powder, the reduction of braunite may have been directly to MnO. Reduction at 600 °C only formed Mn3O4 in the unmilled powder but the major product in the 10-h-milled powder was MnO. The increased extent of reaction after premilling may allow current processing plants to expand their throughput without increasing the size of reduction kiln.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Copyright: © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
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