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Cytomegaloviruses: Murine and other nonprimate cytomegaloviruses

Redwood, A.J., Smith, L.M. and Shellam, G.R. (2008) Cytomegaloviruses: Murine and other nonprimate cytomegaloviruses. In: Mahy, B.W.J. and van Regenmortel, M.H.V., (eds.) Encyclopedia of Virology. Elsevier B.V., pp. 624-634.

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The cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to subfamily Betaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae. The best described of the nonprimate CMVs is murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV; Murid herpesvirus 1). MCMV is the type species for the genus Muromegalovirus, which also contains rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV; Murid herpesvirus 2). Putative CMVs that have yet to be classified fully include guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV; Caviid herpesvirus 2), tree shrew herpesvirus (Tupaiid herpesvirus 1), swine cytomegalovirus (suid herpesvirus 2), European ground squirrel cytomegalovirus (sciurid herpesvirus 1), and American ground squirrel cytomegalovirus (sciurid herpesvirus 2).

The genomes of MCMV and RCMV have similar genetic structures to those of primate CMVs. Genes in the central region of the genome are conserved among all CMVs, whereas viral species-specific genes are found near the termini. Nonprimate CMVs have been used widely to investigate basic mechanisms of viral persistence, latency, and pathogenesis, as well as to elucidate innate and adaptive immune responses to the virus. CMVs are strictly species specific, and rodent CMVs in their natural hosts have been used widely as experimental models of human CMV (HCMV) infection. MCMV has been used to study a variety of virus-induced diseases, such as hepatitis and myocarditis, and RCMV is used as a model of the vascular diseases associated with HCMV infection. GPCMV crosses the placenta and is used as a model of congenital HCMV infection.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Copyright: © 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
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