Murdoch University Research Repository

Welcome to the Murdoch University Research Repository

The Murdoch University Research Repository is an open access digital collection of research
created by Murdoch University staff, researchers and postgraduate students.

Learn more

Investigation into the role of live bird markets in the transmission and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia

Kurscheid, Johanna (2015) Investigation into the role of live bird markets in the transmission and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.

PDF (Large File Size) - Whole Thesis
Download (20MB)


Since the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in 2003, Indonesia has suffered large losses in the poultry sector and the highest number of H5N1-related human deaths to date. Despite government and internationally led disease control and eradication efforts, the virus remains entrenched throughout many parts of the country. Live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in a number of avian H5N1 outbreaks and are considered a high-risk interface due to mixing of large numbers of diverse poultry species with unknown disease status. Despite this, little is known about the role that markets play in the epidemiology of HPAI viruses. To investigate the scale and trends of poultry movement, marketing and management in Indonesian LBMs, a socio-epidemiological study combining qualitative and quantitative approaches and methodology was designed and implemented. A cross-sectional survey of 547 poultry traders and customers, conducted at 17 LBMs on the neighbouring islands of Bali and Lombok, revealed a high proportion of traders with limited knowledge of HPAI and biosecurity engaging in practices conducive to circulation and spread of the virus. Observational studies revealed that many markets lacked basic infrastructure for crucial cleaning and disinfection activities and had poorly implemented, or no, biosecurity. Social network analysis of movement events revealed differences in movement patterns of live poultry in Bali and Lombok that may influence the potential for markets to become infected or facilitate the spread of infection. In addition, a qualitative risk assessment of bird-to-bird transmission of HPAI H5N1 also revealed differences in potential risk between markets, with several identified as having a very high risk of becoming infected. The findings of this study enabled rating of each of the 17 LBMs in terms of transmission potential and potential spread of HPAI viruses, which will allow authorities to focus efforts where limited resources would have the greatest impact, of vital importance in low resource settings.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Supervisor(s): Fenwick, Stan
Item Control Page Item Control Page


Downloads per month over past year