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Novel genes from wild barley hordeum spontaneum for barley improvement

Gong, X., Li, C., Zhang, G., Yan, G., Lance, R. and Sun, D. (2012) Novel genes from wild barley hordeum spontaneum for barley improvement. In: Zhang, G., Li, C. and Lui, X., (eds.) Advance in Barley Sciences: Proceedings of 11th International Barley Genetics Symposium. Springer Netherlands, pp. 69-86.

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Narrowing genetic basis is the bottleneck for modern plant improvement. Genetic variation in wild barley Hordeum spontaneum is much greater than that of either cultivated or landrace H. vulgare gene pool. It represents a valuable but underutilised gene pool for barley improvement as no biological isolation barriers exist between H. spontaneum and cultivated barley. Novel sources of new genes were identified from H. spontaneum for yield, quality, disease resistance and abiotic tolerance. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were mapped to all barley chromosomes. A QTL on chromosome 4H from the wild barley consistently increased yield by 7.7% across six test environments. Wild barley H. spontaneum was demonstrated as key genetic resource for drought and salinity tolerance. Two QTLs on chromosomes 2H and 5H increased grain yield by 12–22% under drought conditions. Several QTL clusters were present on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 6H and 7H from H. spontaneum for drought and salinity tolerance. Numerous candidate genes were identified to associate with tolerance to drought or salinity, and some of the candidate genes co-located with the QTLs for drought tolerance. QTLs/genes for resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust and scald were mapped to all chromosomes. Scald resistance was found in at least five chromosome locations (1HS, 3H, 6HS, 7HL and 7HS) from H. spontaneum, and simple molecular markers were developed to accelerate transferring of these genes into cultivated barley. Novel beta-amylase allele from H. spontaneum was used to improve barley malting quality. Advanced backcross QTL provides an efficiency approach to transfer novel genes from H. spontaneum to cultivated barley.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Western Australian State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Copyright: 2012 Zhejiang University Press and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
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