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Computed tomographic features of feline sino-nasal and sino-orbital aspergillosis

Barrs, V.R., Beatty, J.A., Dhand, N.K., Talbot, J.J., Bell, E., Abraham, L.A., Chapman, P., Bennett, S., van Doorn, T. and Makara, M. (2014) Computed tomographic features of feline sino-nasal and sino-orbital aspergillosis. The Veterinary Journal, 201 (2). pp. 215-222.

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Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) occurs as two distinct anatomical forms, namely, sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) and sino-orbital aspergillosis (SOA). An emerging pathogen, Aspergillus felis, is frequently involved. The pathogenesis of URTA, in particular the relationship between the infecting isolate and outcome, is poorly understood. In this study, computed tomography was used to investigate the route of fungal infection and extension in 16 cases (SNA n=7, SOA n=9) where the infecting isolate had been identified by molecular testing.All cases had nasal cavity involvement except for one cat with SNA that had unilateral frontal sinus changes. There was a strong association between the infecting species and anatomic form (P=0.005). A. fumigatus infections remained within the sino-nasal cavity, while cryptic species infections were associated with orbital and paranasal soft-tissue involvement and with orbital lysis. Cryptic species were further associated with a mass in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or nasopharynx. Orbital masses showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement, with central coalescing hypoattenuating foci and peripheral rim enhancement. Severe, cavitated turbinate lysis, typical of canine SNA, was present only in cats with SNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the nasal cavity is the portal of entry for fungal spores in feline URTA and that the route of extension to involve the orbit is via direct naso-orbital communication from bone lysis. Additionally, a pathogenic role for A. wyomingensis and a sinolith in a cat with A. udagawae infection are reported for the first time.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Publisher: Balliere Tindall
Copyright: © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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