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Rhipicephalus microplus lipocalins (LRMs): Genomic identification and analysis of the bovine immune response using in silico predicted B and T cell epitopes

Rodriguez-Valle, M., Moolhuijzen, P., Piper, E.K., Weiss, O., Vance, M., Bellgard, M. and Lew-Tabor, A. (2013) Rhipicephalus microplus lipocalins (LRMs): Genomic identification and analysis of the bovine immune response using in silico predicted B and T cell epitopes. International Journal for Parasitology, 43 (9). pp. 739-752.

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The attachment to host skin by Rhipicephalus microplus larvae induces a series of physiological events at the attachment site. The host-parasite interaction might induce a rejection of the larvae, as is frequently observed in Bos taurus indicus cattle, and under certain conditions in Bos taurus taurus cattle. Ticks deactivate the host rejection response by secreting specific proteins and lipids that play an essential role in manipulation of the host immune response. The available genomic information on the R. microplus tick was mined using bioinformatics approaches to identify R. microplus lipocalins (LRMs). This in silico examination revealed a total of 12 different putative R. microplus LRMs (LRM1-LRM12). The identity of the LRM family showed high sequence variability: from 6% between LRM7 and LRM8 to 55.9% between LRM2 and LRM6. However, the three-dimensional structure of the lipocalin family was conserved in the LRMs. The B and T cell epitopes in these lipocalins were then predicted, and six of the LRMs (5, 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12) were used to examine the host immune interactions with sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from tick-susceptible and tick-resistant cattle challenged with R. microplus. On days 28-60 after tick infestation, the anti-LRM titres were higher in the resistant group compared with the susceptible cattle. After 60day, the anti-LRM titres (except LRM9 and LRM11) decreased to zero in the sera of both the tick-resistant and tick-susceptible cattle. Using cell proliferation assays, the PBMCs challenged with some of the predicted T cell epitopes (LRM1_T1, T2; LRM_T1, T2 and LRM12_T) exhibited a significantly higher number of IFN-γ-secreting cells (Th1) in tick-susceptible Holstein-Friesians compared with tick-resistant Brahman cattle. In contrast, expression of the Th2 cytokine (IL-4) was lower in Holstein-Friesians cattle compared with Brahman cattle. Moreover, this study found that LRM6, LRM9 and LRM11 play important roles in the mechanism by which R. microplus interferes with the host's haemostasis mechanisms.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): Centre for Comparative Genomics
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Copyright: © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.
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